AnalogEVSE

A basic analog SAE J1772 charge controller

Last updated: 2019-08-21
German English



Assembled PCB
PCB with DIN Rail enclosure
Finished EVSE

Contents

1. Overview
2. Why Another EVSE?
3. Circuit States & LEDs
4. Charge Current Selection
5. Circuit Description
6. Emergency Shutdown
7. Access Control
8. Limitations
9. Hints & Modding
10. Construction Manual
11. Testing
12. Downloads
13. Ordering
14. Disclaimer

1. Overview

AnalogEVSE is a simple SAE J1772 compliant charge controller for EVs. The charge current can be adjusted from 8A to 64A with a resistor or control voltage.

The circuit resides on a single PCB (6.5 cm x 8.4 cm) containing both the power supply and the pilot signal management. The PCB is designed to fit into a 4 unit DIN rail enclosure. This makes the new PCB 30% smaller than the previous version. Additionally, the frequency calibration is no longer equired. The circuit generates the pilot signal, measures its voltage levels and operates a relay which can be used for switching on the high current relay.

The circuit was designed using only common and inexpensive parts. The main components are 2 LM2901 or LM239 quad comparators (LM339s with extended temperature range), a CD 4060B, a few transistors and a handful of passive parts. Everything is analog and there is no software. Virtually any transistor of the right type (NPN/PNP) will work. The cost for all components should not exceed 50€. The PCB is single sided with large tracks and can easily be reproduced by hobbyists.

The PCB has the following connectors:
Most other analog EVSEs I know generate the positive part of the pilot signal only. The car doesn't use the negative signal so charging works with many cars even if this does not comply with the J1772 standard. However, the negative half-wave is used for the diode check which is an essential safety feature. AnalogEVSE has a J1772 compliant -12V/+12V pilot signal and supports the diode check. Rain water, dirt or a child's fingers will not be able to turn on the EVSE. With no EV connected, the Pilot signal is at 12V DC.

If the EV requests ventilation the circuit will close the relay and enable charging. Since there is no extra relay for a ventilator the circuit must be used outside only with lead acid batteries.

The EV will start charging as soon as the connector is plugged in. There is no extra button for triggering the operation.

The following EVs are known to work with AnalogEVSE:


2. Why Another EVSE?

There are three major reasons: curiosity, price and simplicity. Commercially available charge controllers (Phoenix Contact, Wago..) are expensive and provide a set of features that I don't need. I rarely switch between charge currents and if I do I want to do it easily (preferably with a rotary switch). I also want some sort of status display but it doesn't have to be a text display. I'll never use a RTC, network, wifi or sophisticated authentication.

So I studied the SAE J1772 standard and its simplicity is striking. Making a basic EVSE with analog circuitry is pretty straightforward. I have found a few analog EVSE circuits on the internet but they are either too minimalistic/unsafe (BareEVSE), ignore parts of the standard (only +12V pilot signal) or come without schematics. So I decided to design a simple analog circuit that complies with J1772, delivers a +/-12V pilot signal and supports the diode check for safety reasons.

The main focus of my design is simplicity. The new design uses less components, has a smaller PCB, lower power consumption and eliminates the need for frequency calibration by using a quartz oscillator. The layout is simple and the circuit is tolerant against assembly mistakes. Debugging is relatively simple and can be done using basic equipment which makes this design suitable for use in less developed countries.

3. Circuit States & LEDs

The following table shows the possible states of the circuit and the corresponding LEDs.


LED yellow
Idle

LED green
Connected
LED blue
Charging
LED red
Error
No EV
on
off off off
EV connected
off
on
off off
EV charging
off off on
off
EV requests ventilation
off off on off
Pilot signal short circuit
off off aus on2
Diode test failure
off off aus on1,2

1 with EV connected
2 J1772 requires -12V DC. See chapter Limitations.

Note: Using an RGB LED with a common anode is possible since all LEDs have one common pin. Use of the Idle LED is optional. However, the other three LEDs (red, green, blue) must either all be connected or none at all. Otherwise, they will display wrong status colors.


4. Charge Current Selection

The charge current can be set with an external resistor according to the following table. Intermediate values are supported since the circuit is all analog. Using a potentiometer is also possible. Please note:

Rext
Charge current
--
8A
220k
10A
100k
12A
56k
16A
33k
20A
22k
24A
15k
27A

Rext
Charge current
10k 32A
6k8 36A
4k7 40A
3k3 45A
2k7 48A
2k2
50A
1k5
64A

Alternatively, the charge current can be selected with a control voltage between 1,5V (64A) and 10V (8A), e.g. by a solar array controller.

5. Circuit Description

Power supply

The power supply is a simple +/-12V stabilized circuit using 78L12/79L12. The current requirements are so low that a simple half-wave rectifier is sufficient.

Note: the negative supply voltage requires a few mA load in order to remain stable. Therefore, the onboard power LED is mandatory.

Square wave signal

The 1kHz square wave signal is generated by a quartz oscillator and filtered into a triangle-ish signal by an RC element. A voltage comparator is used for transforming it into the square wave. The comparator's reference voltage defines the duty cycle and can be adjusted with the external resistor. Using no external resistor sets the default charge current (8A).

Voltage window detection

The square wave signal is split into its negative and positive half-waves. Both are rectified and filtered to a stable DC (peak) voltage. The negative part must remain below -8V at all times (diode check) or the circuit will go to error state.

If the positive part is below 10V the EV connected LED will light up. If it is between 7V and 2V the relay will switch on and the charging LED will light up. For all positive voltages below 2V (short circuit) the circuit will go to error state. The various reference voltages are generated by a string of resistors forming a multi-voltage divider.

Pilot signal

The pilot signal is generated by two comparators and boosted by a complementary transistor stage. It is at +12V DC when no EV is connected.

Relay driver

The relay driver has a 47μF capacitor for debouncing the relay. A bouncing relay can destroy the EV's charger when using 3-phase charging (e.g. Renault ZOE).

LED drivers

The LED driver uses Zener diodes with varying forward voltages so that only one LED lights up at a time.

6. Emergency Shutdown

An emergency shutdown is not part of the circuit. However, it can be implemented easily with a switch that interrupts the 230V power supply. This will remove power from the circuit and the relay will open. Please note that an emergency shutdown should only be used in cases of emergency because the EV prefers to shut down the charging process gracefully.

Note: the emergency shutdown circuit my be subject to legal requirements.

7. Access Control

There are several ways for implementing a simple mechanical access control:

8. Limitations


9. Hints & Modding

9.1 Load Balancing

If two EVs must be charged from a single mains supply the generic solution would be to assign half of the supply power to each EV. This will ensure that the maximum power of the supply line will never be exceeded even if both EVs are charging simultaneously. However, this solution will "waste" half of the supply power if only one EV is connected. This EV could be charged at twice the power and finish charging much quicker.

In this scenario, load balancing will dynamically adjust the available charging power, depending on the number of charging EVs. A charging station with 2 AnalogEVSE controllers can be implemented with just two resistors, using the unused second relay contact. The two resistors (R1 and R2) are connected in parallel as long as only one EV is charging. If two EVs are charging one of the resistors (R2) will be disconnected. This raises the resistance and halves the current.



The values of R1 and R2 are dependent on each other and must be chosen carefully in order not to overload the mains supply under all circumstances. First we must select the full throttle current for a single charging car. We can then look up the corresponding current selection resistor
Rext1 from the table. Then we determine the resistor Rext2 for half the current in the same manner. Now we can calculate the two resistors:

R1 = Rext2 / 2

R2 = 1 / (2 / Rext1 - 1 / R1)

An example:
One EV will charge with 32A, two EVs will charge with 16A each. Using the table we find:

Rext1 = 10k (for 32A)
Rext2 = 56k (for 16A)

Now we can apply the formula above for calculating R1 and R2. If there are no matching standard resistors we can either use a trimpot or a combination of multiple resistors.

R1 = Rext2 / 2 = 56000 / 2 = 28000 closest standard value 27k
R2 =
1 / (2 / Rext1 - 1 / R1) = 1 / (2 / 10000 - 1 / 27000) = 6136
closest standard value 6.8k

If the calculated value is not readily available it is usually better to choose a higher value so that the current does not exceed the limit.

9.3 Additional Hints


10. Construction Manual

10.1 General Hints

The kit contains all components that are required for assembling and testing the AnalogEVSE controller. Populating the PCB requires a certain amount of soldering experience. Misplaced or misoriented components will lead to erroneous behavior and may be dangerous. Please read this manual before starting the assembly.

10.2 Safety

This circuit has 230V mains voltage and low voltage on a single PCB. When working with the controller, please be extra careful if the PCB is connected to the mains.

10.3 Tools

You will need the following tools:


10.4 Preparations

Identify all components using the BOM and make sure the kit is complete.

Hints for the kit:

10.5 Assembly

10.5.1 General Hints

The basic assembly procedure goes as follows:
All components should be soldered into place that they touch the surface of the PCB free of clearance. Transistors and the voltage regulators should be installed so that their pins are approximately 7mm long.

10.5.2 Assembly and Test of the Power Supply

Components: P1, P4, P6, F1, T1, D1, D2, C1, C2, C4, C5, U1, U2

The PCB has pads for different types of transformers. First, solder the transformer into the matching holes. Check the polarity of diodes and electrolytic capacitors. The voltage regulators U1 and U2 are different types and must be mounted in the correct location. It is advisable to slide P4 and P6 together before mounting them onto the PCB.
When all components have been mounted properly insert the fuse and connect to 230V
~ mains voltage. You should be able to measure +12V between 0V (P4 Gnd) and pin 3 of the IC sockets of U3/U5 and -12V between 0V (P4 Gnd) and pin 12 of these IC sockets. If this is not the case power down immediately and look for the error.


10.5.3 Assembly and Startup

Mount the diodes D10 and D12 first and use the clipped off wire ends for the two wire bridges, then mount the IC sockets. Please make sure you don't forget these wir bridges as it will be nearly impossible to retrofit them later. Install the remaining terminals so that their guiding rails interlock. You can also slide them together before mounting them onto the PCB. You can now install and solder all remaining components starting with the smallest pieces. When all components are assembled insert U3, U4 and U5 into their sockets. You may need to bend the pins slightly inwards.

Check the PCB carefully and connect it to the main voltage. Only the power and error LED should light up. If this is not the case switch off immediately and look for the error.


10.5.4 DIN Rail Enclosure Installation

The recommended (or the one that comes with the kit) DIN rail enclosure has a little plastic stabilizer in the center of the front and back access ports. Unfortunately, this tiny piece of plastic blocks access to the terminals for LEDs and the pilot signal. However, it can easily be removed using a sharp knife/wire cutter and a small file. If done carefully, the procedure will not be visible.

10.5.5 BOM

See here for the BOM.


11. Testing

Once the PCB is completed the interesting question arises: will it work? In order to test the functionality of the assembly you need an EV simulator and an oscilloscope for troubleshooting.

The EV simulator is a simple circuit which mimics the correct behavior of the EV and can simulate two distinct errors. The simulator is available as a kit from OpenEVSE but it is so simple that it can be built point to point.


EV
                simulator SW1
EV connected
SW2
EV charging (with SW1 closed)
SW3
CP short circuit
SW4
Diode failure


With the pilot signal from the AnalogEVSE PCB is connected to the EV simulator you can test the following conditions using the on-board LEDs:

SW1
SW2
SW3
SW4
State
LED
Idle
LED
Connected
LED
Charge
u. Relais
LED
Error
off
off off off Idle / No EV
on
off off off
on
off off off EV connected off on
off off
on
on
off off Charging off off on
off
don't care on
off Pilot signal short circuit off off off on
SW1 and/or SW2 on on
Diode error off off off on


12. Downloads

AnalogEVSE was designed using KiCad 5.0.1. KiCad is a free EDA software package available for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. The KiCad project is hosted on Github. Please remember that the latest revisions may not work.


Github: https://github.com/helmutheinz2002/analogevse-v2

Files of the KiCad project

Schematics:
For a quick look: analogevse-v2.0.0-schematic.pdf

Please use the KiCAD files for reference or development as these will be updated constantly.

Zip-Archive of Version 1.8:
This archive contains the full website as it was during version 1.8

analogevse-v1.8.zip

If your circuit doesn't seem to match the description on this page then these files are probably what you need.

KiCad:
Downloads

KiCad Software Download

Wiring Diagram:
Wiring-AnalogEVSE-2.0.0.pdf

Wiring Diagram for a wallbox using the AnalogEVSE controller and details about load balancing.


13. Ordering

You can order the PCB or a full kit from me using the email address listed below. Postage is included for shipping within Germany. Unfortunately, Deutsche Post has introduced restrictions on international shipping at the beginning of 2019. This results in a drastic increase of postage which I need to pass on to buyers in order not to incur a loss. Please check the table below for approximate postage and contact me for the exact amount when placing your order. Note that postage is only required once per order (not per item).

Delivery time for a kit is approximately one week since I may have to obtain some components before shipping. PCBs can be shipped immediately as long as my stash lasts.

Please note: if you order the PCB only you will need to find a number of components that match the footprint on the PCB (e.g. the transformer). Moreover, the PCB size is tuned exactly to the DIN rail enclosure I use. The kit includes all components that will match the PCB and the PCB will fit nicely into the box.



Price
Germany EU
Switzerland
Worldwide
PCB

Professionally manufactured single sided PCB
with solder resist and assembly pressure
Order PCB
   10€  
no
postage
+ 4
postage
+ 8
postage
+ 8
postage
Kit

All components required for a complete controller:
PCB, electrical components
, transformer, DIN rail enclosure

Without external resistor Rext
Kit
   50€  
no
postage
+ 4
postage
+ 8
postage
+ 12
postage


12. Disclaimer

(C) 2015 Bernhard Walter

AnalogEVSE is open source hardware. I designed it for my needs and although I designed it carefully I cannot guarantee that it is free of errors. Use it at your own risk.
You are free to build, copy and modify the circuit and its documentation as long as you include the original copyright notice and this disclaimer.

Use caution when working with high voltage. It may kill you.

I am not responsible for the content of linked external web pages.

Contact: analogevse@web.de


Changelog:
2015-11-19: Correction of minor error in PCB layout. Version changed from 1.3 to 1.4.
2015-11-22: PCB redesign for a standard transformer

2016-09-10: Version 1.8
2016-09-20: C11 added
2016-11-04: correction of charge current table

2016-11-07: correction of C10 in BOM
2017-04-19: New PCB layout, new email address
2018-09-25: Minor corrections: C1 NP0, LED states for testing
2019-01-01: Kits and PCBs no longer available

2019-01-03: Update to Version 2.0.0
2019-03-07: Finalized Version 2.0.0
2019-08-21: PCB v2.0.1, BOM as xls

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